Indien: Vom größten Tee-Exporteur der Welt zum größten Absatzmarkt für Software & Services

Nur weil der Tee-Export während der Wirtschaftskrise in den 30er Jahren einbrach, wurde Tee in Indien ein Produkt für den Massenmarkt und damit auch im eigenen Land ein Milliardengeschäft. Das gleiche wird in den kommenden Jahren auch in vielen anderen Branchen passieren. Die Wertschöpfung wandert vom Export zur Inlandsnachfrage.

Demnächst soll Tee zum offiziellen Nationalgetränk Indiens werden – was immer das heißen mag. Aber egal, die Inder haben alles schon patriotisiert: national animal, national sports, national bird, national flower, national tree, national everything. Nun wird also der Tee geadelt.

Wer hat’s erfunden?

Patriotisch wie die Inder nun mal sind, glauben die meisten, dass sie den Tee selbst erfunden hätten und eine Jahrtausende alte Tee-Tradition hätten. Dem ist aber nicht so! Tee kommt traditionell aus China, wo die man dessen Konsum schon bis vor Christi Geburt nachweisen konnte. Nach Indien kam der Tee erstmals durch die Engländer, die die edlen Blätter von China nach Indien brachten und diesen mit Opium bezahlten um nach China zu exportieren.

Vor nicht mal 200 Jahren wurde dann erstmals Tee im Nordosten Indiens angebaut, für die indischen Abnehmer. Tee war damals lediglich ein Genussmittel der herrschenden Eliten in der damaligen Hauptstadt Kalkutta.

Indien wird zum Export-Weltmeister

Als aber am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts der chinesische Marktanteil an der Londoner Teebörse von 70 auf 10 Prozent fiel, konnte Indien (gemeinsam mit Ceylon) diese Verluste wett machen und stieg innerhalb von zwanzig Jahren zum größten Tee-Exporteur der Welt auf. Davon profitierten natürlich die indischen Händler sowie britischen Geschäftsleute massiv.

Tee war damals jedenfalls noch lange kein Produkt für den indischen Massenmarkt, sondern absolutes Luxusgut. Im Jahre 1910 wurden in Indien lediglich 8 Millionen Kilogramm Tee verkauft, während 15 mal so viel nach Großbritannien ging. Heute würde man sagen: Die indische Tee-Industrie war absolut Export-abhängig.

Wirtschaftskrise statt Tea-Party

Als in Folge des Börse-Crashs 1929 die (amerikanische) Wirtschaft zusammen brach und die Marktpreise für Tee in den Keller rasselten, wurde Indiens Tee-Branche richtig hart getroffen
. Daher hab es in den 30er Jahren die ersten Versuche Tee in Indien als Getränk populärer zu machen – mit relativ wenig Erfolg – zum Leidwesen der Händler. Tee hatte damals noch eine schlechte Lobby. Selbst politische Führer und Sozialreformer wie Mahatma Gandhi wetterte gegen den Teekonsum. Das Heißgetränk sei berauschend wie ungesund – wie Tabak. Außerdem würde Tee die Haut dunkler färben. Das wäre auch heute noch ein absolutes Killer-Argument gegen den Teekonsum – denn die noble Blässe ist (bis heute) in Indien noch immer das vorherrschende Schönheitsideal.

Chai, Chai!

Daher dümpelte der heimische Markt weiter vor sich hin. Bis zur Unabhängigkeit im Jahre 1947 wurden 70 Prozent des indischen Tees exportiert. Erst in den 60er Jahren wurde Teekonsum in der breiten Bevölkerung Indiens populär. Damals entstanden all die uns bekannten Tea-Stalls, die heute noch immer die Straßen Indiens säumen. Denn der Großteil des Tees wird in Indien auf der Straße getrunken – mit viel Milch und noch mehr Zucker, dafür um wenige Rupien.

Heute konsumiert Indien ein Viertel des weltweiten Tees. Von 1000 Tonnen geernteten Tee wurden im letzten Jahr 85 Prozent in Indien konsumiert. Die Nachfrage nach Tee wächst in Indien schneller als die Produktionskapazitäten. Das bedeutet, dass Indien in ein paar Jahren Tee einführen wird müssen, um die Nachfrage zu bedienen. Wahrscheinlich von China, das Indien 2006 wieder als weltweit größter Tee-Produzent abgelöst hat.

India rocks! Der Wachstumsmarkt rückt ins Zentrum.

Weil in den 30er Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts die Abnehmer im Westen schwächelten, musste der indische Markt für Tee angekurbelt werden. Auch wenn heute noch die Top-Ware exportiert wird, macht der Heimmarkt den größten Marktanteil aus.

Was mit dem Tee-Handel (Inbegriff der Kolonialisierung) im letzten Jahrhundert passiert ist, könnte sich in zahlreichen anderen Branchen im 21. Jahrhundert wiederholen. Weil die Absatzmärkte im Westen schwächeln, rückt der domestic market für die indischen Unternehmer immer mehr in den Vordergrund.

Das kann man unter anderem in der IT Branche beobachten. Kein anderer Wirtschaftsbereich war so stark vom Export abhängig wie Software & Services. Wer aber die indische IT-Szene jenseits der großen Outsourcing Dienstleister betrachtet, wird hunderte innovative Start-ups finden, die Software und Services für den indischen Markt entwickeln

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. Wer weiß, vielleicht muss Indien in zwanzig Jahren auch bereits mehr Software und Entwicklungsleistungen zukaufen als sie exportieren….?

Wird Indien als Ziel-Markt für europäische IT-Dienstleister?

Oder wird Software-Ingenieur bald zur national profession Indiens?

Es bleibt spannend!

(Ein Kommentar von Wolfgang Bergthaler)

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About the author

Wolfgang Bergthaler

Wolfgang Bergthaler ist seit 2004 mit Indien beruflich und privat eng verbunden. Als Entrepreneur, Berater und Blogger hat er Land und Wirtschaft von den spannendsten Perspektiven kennen gelernt.
Auf "Indische Wirtschaft" teilt er seine Erfahrungen, insbesondere zu den Themen IT Outsourcing, Tech Startups, Marketing und Vertrieb.

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