Die Armen fordern Design, Komfort & Status

Meine letzte Indien-Reise stand ganz im Zeichen von “Base of the Pyramid” (BoP). Drei Wochen lang habe ich habe Märkte, Produkte, Innovationen, Marketing und Vertrieb von Produkten für die “Armen” studiert. Dass wir alle bisherigen Annahmen und Meinungen über diese Märkte verwerfen müssen, hat schon C K Prahalad, der Begründer von Social Entrepreneurship, vor 10 Jahren geschrieben. Davon konnte ich mich während meiner zahlreichen “Village Visits” wieder ganz persönlich und direkt überzeugen.

Die Kaufkraft dieser Märkte darf man nicht unterschätzen. Auch wenn das tägliche Einkommen nur einige wenige Dollar beträgt, wird ein beträchtlicher Teil davon (ver)konsumiert. Vielleicht gerade weil am Land Wohnen und Essen nichts oder nicht viel kostet, steht – relativ gesehen – mehr Einkommen für den Konsum zur Verfügung. Um (365 Tage x 1 Dollar) bekommt man schon eine Menge. Und so verfügt zum Beispiel jeder Haushalt in Indien über ein Fernsehgerät, (das quasi immer läuft). Die (TV-)Medien sorgen nun dafür, dass die Marketing-Maschinerie auch die Armen erreicht und genau die gleichen Bedürfnisse weckt, die die urbane Mittelklasse auch hat: nettes Haus oder Wohnung, eigenes Fahrzeug, Haushaltsgeräte die das Leben leichter machen, ein Handy zum Kommunizieren, Musik und Film aus Bollywood, Fashion, Statussymbole und Luxusgüte.

Natürlich können sich die Armen nicht die gleichen Produkte leisten wie die Mittelschicht, aber alle erfolgreichen BoP-Produkte sind herausragend in Bezug auf

  • (Produkt-)Design: Eine “Mahatma Gandhi Brille” ließe sich heute nicht mal mehr im letzten Dorf in Gujarat verkaufen; die muss schon eher der Sonnenbrille entsprechen, die Shah Rukh Khan im letzten Blockbuster-Film getragen hat. Aus dem gleichen Grund verliert auch Nokia in Indien massiv. Indische Handy-Hersteller wie Micromax erreichen mit stylischen Endgeräten heute schon über 20%  Marktanteil!
  • Komfort & Convenience: Nur weil die Kunden arm sind, würden sie ihr Verhalten nicht ändern

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    . Sie kauften beispielsweise ein Trinkwasser-Desinfektionsgerät nur, wenn Sie keine zusätzliche Arbeit damit haben
    . Sonst würden sie lieber weiterhin ihr verunreinigtes Wasser trinken.

  • Status(symbol): Wenn das Produkt dem Käufer nicht als Statussymbol dient, ist es uninteressant. Egal ob Auto oder Seife – nur die Marke zählt! Ein Produkt, das als “billig” gebranded ist, ist uninteressant. Daran ist sogar schon Tata, Indiens größter und ältester Konzern, gescheitert. Das 2.000 Euro Auto “Tata Nano” wurde für die Zielgruppe der Motorradbesitzer entwickelt (Stichwort 5-köpfige Familie auf einem Motorroller), aber als “poor men’s car” vom indischen Markt aufgenommen. Daher bleiben die Verkaufszahlen um Dimensionen hinter den Erwartungen – trotz natürlicher Nachfrage, guter Qualität, hohem Innovationsgrad, starker Marke, Milliarden für Marketing sowie enorme Medienpräsenz für dieses Projekt.

(Wolfgang Bergthaler)

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About the author

Wolfgang Bergthaler

Wolfgang Bergthaler ist seit 2004 mit Indien beruflich und privat eng verbunden. Als Entrepreneur, Berater und Blogger hat er Land und Wirtschaft von den spannendsten Perspektiven kennen gelernt.
Auf "Indische Wirtschaft" teilt er seine Erfahrungen, insbesondere zu den Themen IT Outsourcing, Tech Startups, Marketing und Vertrieb.

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