Im zweiten Teil des Interviews spricht Hans-Jörg Hörtnagl, der österreichische Wirtschaftsdelegierte in Indien, über die Herausforderungen an österreichische Unternehmen im indischen Markt.
Indische Wirtschaft: Was muss beim Eintritt in den indischen Markt beachtet werden?
Hans-Jörg Hörtnagl: Wer in Indien Fuß fassen will, braucht eine Präsenz vor Ort – entweder 100 Prozent österreichisch, oder als Joint Venture; verschiedene Formen sind hier möglich
. Außerdem sollte das Thema “Reverse Engineering” beachtet werden: Indien ist ein Niedrigpreis-Land, und europäische Produkte sind für den hiesigen Markt oft zu teuer. Folglich muss eine abgespeckte Variante entwickelt werden, ohne merkliche Abstriche bei der Qualität zu haben. Ein Beispiel ist der Handy-Markt: Es gibt 600 Millionen Handy-Nutzer; damit auch die Ärmsten sich eines leisten können, braucht es preiswerte Massenprodukte.
Werden indische Produkte den europäischen Markt erobern? Etwa der Tata Nano, das billigste Auto der Welt?
Dem Nano fehlt es an Komfort – er ist gut für die breite Masse in Indien, genügt aber nicht europäischen Komfortansprüchen. Aber Indien ist schon jetzt mengenmäßig der fünftgrößte Pharmahersteller; da gibt es Potenzial, etwa bei Generika. Nachdem viel Produktion nach Indien verlagert wurde, werden zudem inzwischen lokale Produkte auch lokal entwickelt, statt in Europa designed zu werden. Engineering und Design hat in Indien Zukunft.
Das österreichische Handelsvolumen mit Indien liegt weit unter dem deutschen. Warum sind österreichische Unternehmen in Indien noch zurückhaltend?
Das ist ein weltweites Phänomen, kein spezifisch indisches: Österreich hat wenige Multinationals, die Stärke liegt bei den KMU. Diese wollen selbst servicieren, und dafür müssen sie Geschäfte im Umkreis machen: KMU sind in Osteuropa unter anderem deshalb aktiver, weil es direkt vor der Haustür liegt.
Welche anderen Hürden sehen Sie noch für Indien?
Die so genannte “Mittelschicht” hat eine Kaufkraft nach indischen Maßstäben – Produkte müssen also billig sein und funktionieren, Design ist weniger wichtig. Zudem brauchen Österreicher Top-Geschäftspartner vor Ort; in Indien ist die Gefahr größer als anderswo, an einen falschen Partner zu gelangen. Oft ist der Markt nicht transparent; hier sind lokale Unternehmer gegenüber Europäern im Vorteil. Auch die Vielfalt des Landes muss beachtet werden: Mit 22 offiziellen Sprachen und 29 Staaten ist Indien weniger ein Land, sondern mehr ein Subkontinent. Und interkulturelle Hürden müssen ebenso beachtet werden wie der rechtliche Bereich: Die Rechtsbasis nach angelsächsischem Recht ist gut, aber die indische Bürokratie ist berüchtigt – Gerichte brauchen zehn bis fünfzehn Jahre zum Fällen eines Urteils. Wer vor Ort produziert, muss sich zudem auf schlechte Infrastruktur mit logistischen Herausforderungen und zum Beispiel Stromabschaltungen einstellen.
Abschließend: Was möchten Sie bis zum Ende der Amtsperiode im Sommer 2012 erreichen?
Die Exporte aus Österreich sollen um 50 Prozent gesteigert werden. Die Zahl der Niederlassungen – derzeit über 100 – soll ebenfalls um 50 Prozent steigen. Und mein Ziel ist, dass wir in den Hoffnungssektoren Umwelt- und Alternativenergien stärker Fuß fassen
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(Das Interview führte Stefan Mey)