Ich bin nun für knapp 5 Wochen in Indien unterwegs (Delhi, Cochin, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Bombay, Delhi) und möchte durch regelmäßige Kurzberichte meine persönlichen Erfahrungen im Kontext „Indische Wirtschaft“ mit Ihnen teilen
. Im Sinne eines Kommentars werde ich neben den objektiven Fakten auch meine persönlichen Interpretationen und Meinung durchsickern lassen.
In Indien habe ich oft den Eindruck, dass außer mir auch noch das ganze Land unterwegs ist. Dieses Gefühl hatte ich diesmal bereits, als ich noch zu Hause meine Reise plante und die Zugtickets (natürlich online) gebucht habe. Mein gewünschtes Bahnticket in 4 Wochen wäre „waitlisted #52“, hieß es. Dass 52 Leute ausfallen ist unrealistisch, daher musste ich sicherheitshalber einen anderen Zug buchen. In Summe hat die Indische Bahn eine Auslastung von fast 100%. Strecken wie Delhi-Bombay sind sowieso heillos überlastet. Während der Ferienzeit, an Feiertagen oder an Wochenenden gibt es einen besonderen Andrang. Am besten man bucht bereits 40 Tage vor Abreise (ab dann sind Buchungen möglich) oder man nimmt einen Flug.
Trotz mittlerweile sehr guter, behaupte ich mal, Luftfahrtinfrastruktur in Indien (neue Flughäfen, relativ günstige Tickets durch eine Vielzahl an privaten Fluglinien und ausreichend Verbindungen) bin ich weiterhin ein absoluter Fan der indischen Eisenbahn – trotz relativ langsamer Verbindungen, regelmäßigen Verspätungen und teils veralteter Fahrgarnituren. Warum…?
Ich möchte an dieser Stelle kein Wort über den Mythos der Indian Railways verschwenden. Diese Geschichten sind so alt wie die britische Kolonisation des Subkontinents. Bahnfahren in Indien ist einfach ein MUSS, hat KULT. Unter anderem wurde unlängst der Stoff in dem Film „Darjeeling Limited“ verarbeitet. Grundsätzlich sollte jeder Tourist in Indien auch mal mit der Eisenbahn gefahren sein, inklusive der Bekanntschaften, Gespräche und wunderschönen Landschaftseindrücken. Das gehört genauso dazu wie Chai oder Taj Mahal.
Lassen Sie uns aber kurz die Eisenbahn aus der wirtschaftlichen Sicht betrachten. Das beeindruckende an den Indischen Eisenbahnen ist das unglaubliche Preis-Leistungsverhältnis. (M)ein Ticket mit dem Nachtzug von Bangalore nach Hyderabad (etwa 800km) im klimatisierten Schlafwagen kommt auf umgerechnet etwa 11 Euro. In der zweiten Klasse Liegewagen (ohne Klima) fährt man um etwa 4 Euro noch wesentlich günstiger – wenn auch mit offenem Fenster (aber das soll an dieser Stelle mal egal sein). Das ist also ein Preis, der auch für die die breite Basis der Bevölkerung (inklusive der Ärmsten) leistbar ist, um 1-2 mal im Jahr ihre Familien oder Verwandten zu besuchen. So gesehen sind die Indian Railways quasi ein „Social Enterprise“. Ein einfaches Produkt, das die Grundbedürfnisse befriedigt (mit Upgrademöglichkeit für jene, die es sich leisten können und mehr Komfort wollen bis zum eigenen Abteil mit eigenem Betreuer rund um die Uhr).
Abgesehen vom Preis ist die Reise mit der Eisenbahn absolut komfortabel. Man fährt von Stadtzentrum zu Stadtzentrum, ohne Anfahrt zum Flughafen am Stadtrand bzw. Check-In-Zeiten. Man schläft die Nacht, bekommt gegen einen kleinen Aufpreis (etwa 1 Euro) Menü und Getränke. Der Kartenkauf erfolgt heute am einfachsten über das Internet – Stornierungen sind jederzeit gegen geringe Gebühren möglich.
Die Indian Railways, die 100% im Staatseigentum (Ministry of Railways) stehen, unterhalten ein Streckennetz mit einer Länge von 110.000 km und ist damit eine der größten Eisenbahngesellschaften der Welt. Mit 1,6 Millionen Angestellten sind die Indian Railways der größte Arbeitgeber der Welt, sie befördern jährlich etwa 7 Milliarden Passagiere in etwa 8.000 Personenzügen
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Diese Zahlen sind beeindruckend. Trotzdem scheint die Indische Eisenbahn effektiver zu sein als die Österreichischen Bundesbahnen (ÖBB) mit Ihren 40.000 Mitarbeitern. Auf die Bevölkerungszahl umgerechnet kommen auf 1000 Inder 1,4 Eisenbahner, während auf 1000 Österreicher 5 „ÖBB-ler“ kommen.
Ich möchte auch noch nur kurz anmerken, dass die Indian Railways ein profitables Unternehmen sind. In den nächsten Jahren steht den Indian Railways eine gute Zukunft bevor. Man rechnet im Personenverkehr mit jährlichen Zuwachsraten von 5 bis 7%.
Ich jedenfalls freue mich auf meine zahlreichen Bahnfahrten in den nächsten Wochen. Eventuell ergibt sich daraus wieder ein Kommentar.