Parallelen zwischen einem indischen Slum und unserer urbanen Trendbezirken


In Indien sind nur wenige Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung in formalen Anstellungsverhältnissen und arbeiten für internationale oder indische Unternehmen. Weniger als 35 Millionen Inder zahlen Einkommensteuer und arbeiten als Angestellte, oft in der IT Branche, für Corporate India. Erst durch ihre Ausbildung (College-Abschluss) schafften sie den Sprung in die (neue) Mittelklasse, die einen ähnlichen Lebensstil pflegt wie der Mainstream im Westen (quasi “The Indian Dream”).

Vom Kleinst-Unternehmer zum Corporate Monkey

Der Großteil der Inder muss sich jedoch den Lebensunterhalt als Kleinstunternehmer verdienen. Neben Landwirtschaft und Viehzucht gibt es unzählige Arten von kleinen Gewerbetreibenden im informellen Sektor: Straßen-Gastronomie, Nahrungsmittelverarbeitung, jede Art von Handel, Herstellung von natürlichen Pflegeprodukten, für die Männer Reparaturarbeiten, für die Frauen Handarbeiten wie Schneidern, Nähen oder Kunsthandwerk wie zum Beispiel Korbflechten, Töpfern, Malen, Schmuckproduktion und vieles mehr. Wieder andere verdienen sich ihren Lebensunterhalt durch Sammeln und Recycling von Abfall.

In Summe bildet dieser unorganised market die Stütze der indischen Wirtschaft. Man rechnet damit, dass der informelle Sektor die Hälfte der Wirtschaftsleistung des Landes ausmacht und hunderten Millionen Familien eine Existenzgrundlage bietet und ebenso viele Menschen mit Produkten und Services des täglichen Bedarfs versorgt.

Doch die einfache Bevölkerung hat Träume und Ambitionen. Die Kinder dieser indischen Mikro-Unternehmer sollen es besser haben: aufs College gehen, Software-Entwickler werden und für Tata, Reliance oder Infosys arbeiten, im Corporate-Mainstream und der westlichen Konsumgesellschaft ankommen. Indien eifert Europa und vor allem den USA nach.

Vom Corporate Monkey zum Kleinst-Unternehmer (Reverse Entrepreneurship)

Doch welche Träume hat die junge Generation in New York, Berlin oder Wien? Die Antwort mag überraschend klingen: sie will (wieder) Kleinstunternehmer werden!

Spazieren Sie einfach mal durch Berlin Kreuzberg oder die Wiener Westbahnstraße und Sie wissen was ich meine. Dort finden Sie nämlich ein ähnliches Geschäftsumfeld, wie Sie es auch aus Indien kennen – nur auf einem höherem Niveau. Lassen Sie mich ein paar Beispiele aufzählen, die mir dort unterkommen: selbstständige Handwerker, die antike Möbel reparieren oder sich auf handgemachte Pfeffermühlen oder Kinderspielzeug spezialisieren; dutzende Fahrrad-Werkstätten; kleine Straßen-Restaurants und Tee-Häuser (oft nicht größer als ein Chai-Stall); Woll-, Papier und Handarbeitsläden; eine Menge Ramsch und Vintage; Shops für Seifen und Naturkosmetik; Esoteriker und Astrologen; selbstständige Yoga- und Meditations-Lehrer; Werkstätten zum Stricken, Häkeln, Töpfern, Schneidern oder gar Upcycling (also Kunst aus Abfallprodukten).

Es gibt bei uns also eindeutig einen Trend aus der Corporate-World auszusteigen um Mikro-Unternehmer zu werden und die eigene Kreativität zum Lebensmittelpunkt zu machen. Die einen eröffnen eine kleine Boutique oder ein ganz spezielles Lokal, die anderen betreiben eine Werkstätte um mit den eigenen Händen zu arbeiten und persönliche Produkte herzustellen.

Verkehrte Welt?

Wenn man nun also einen indischen Slum und seine Wirtschaft mit der urbanen Szene in Europa vergleicht, sieht man bei all den optischen Unterschieden jedoch verblüffende Parallelen. Was wir heute in der Westbahnstraße sehen, ähnelt in Wahrheit Dharavi. Hier wie dort wird mit den Händen gearbeitet, mit Selbstgemachten gehandelt und personalisierte Mikrodienstleistungen angeboten – informell, persönlich, abseits von anonymen Handelsketten, Brands und Massenmarkt.

Zwischen Chai-Stall/Garküche und Retro-Cafe, zwischen Straßenladen und Fashion-Boutique, und zwischen indischem Recycling- und europäischem Up-cycling ist der einzige Unterschied oft nur die Qualität der Präsentation und das Faktum, dass es in Europa eine Bevölkerungsgruppe gibt, die bereit ist für derartige Produkte und Leistungen einen fairen/hohen Preis zu bezahlen.

Es ist eigentlich paradox

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. In Indien peitscht man gerade eine ganze Generation durch ein überfordertes Bildungs-System, um zig Millionen Software-Entwickler „gleicher Bauart“ zu produzieren. Wenn sich die indische Gesellschaft ähnlich entwickelt wie in Europa werden deren Kinder dann aber wieder zum Mikro-Unternehmer und eröffnen vielleicht einen Vintage Chai-Club im chicen Bandra West
. Offensichtlich gibt es aber keine Abkürzung ein indisches Slum zu Berlin Kreuzberg zu machen. Zuvor muss offensichtlich erstmals eine ganze Gesellschaft den Zyklus der Industrialisierung durchschreiten.

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About the author

Wolfgang Bergthaler

Wolfgang Bergthaler ist seit 2004 mit Indien beruflich und privat eng verbunden. Als Entrepreneur, Berater und Blogger hat er Land und Wirtschaft von den spannendsten Perspektiven kennen gelernt.
Auf "Indische Wirtschaft" teilt er seine Erfahrungen, insbesondere zu den Themen IT Outsourcing, Tech Startups, Marketing und Vertrieb.

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