Viele der Feuerwerksraketen, die in Europa zum Jahreswechsel über die Ladentische und später in die Luft gehen, werden von Kindern hergestellt. In Indien, dem nach China größten Produzenten für Feuerwerke, hat dies schlimme Folgen für die Gesundheit als auch die Entwicklung ganzer Regionen. Das berichtet Vincent Thambuaraj, Leiter der Don-Bosco-Dachorganisation für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Indien, im Interview mit pressetext. Zu Besuch in Österreich war der Kinderrechtsexperte auf Einladung der Partnerorganisation Jugend Eine Welt http://jugendeinewelt.at .
Land der Raketen und Streichhölzer
Aus der Region Sivakasi im Bundesstaat Tamil Nadu stammen 90 Prozent der Feuerwerkskörper Indiens sowie 75 Prozent der Streichholzschachteln. Die Gegend ist trocken und die Bedingungen für Landwirtschaft schlecht, weshalb viele Familien ihr Überleben durch Beschäftigung in dieser Branche sichern. Die Löhne sind allerdings extrem niedrig, weshalb Männer anderswo oft in Städten Arbeit suchen. 70 Prozent der Arbeiter in der Feuerwerksindustrie sind Frauen, viele jedoch auch Kinder. “Kinder kann man noch schlechter bezahlen, sie sind folgsam und wissen nicht um ihre Rechte”, erklärt Thambuaraj.
Kinderarbeit raubt Zukunft
Problematisch ist die Situation einerseits aufgrund der Arbeitsbedingungen. “Die Kinder und Jugendlichen berühren giftige Stoffe wie etwa Schwefel, Schwarz- und Aluminiumpulver und atmen die Feinstäube ein, was bei vielen zu Asthma und Tuberkulose führt. Schwere Unfälle sind häufig: Da Sicherheitsvorkehrungen fehlen, besteht ständig die Gefahr einer Explosion, für die der kleinste Funken reicht”, so der Ordensmann. Herstellungsorte sind meist winzige, blockartige Ziegelgebäude, einzelne Arbeitsschritte werden jedoch auch von Familien in deren eigenen Wohnhäusern durchgeführt.
“Neben dieser direkten Ausbeutung von Kindern gibt es jedoch auch eine indirekte. Denn die Arbeit hindert viele Kinder am Schulbesuch”, betont Thambuaraj. Oft schicken Familien einige ihrer Kinder aus finanziellen Gründen in die Fabriksarbeit, wobei vorrangig Mädchen an die Reihe kommen. Da sie später ohnehin “nur” heiraten sollen, dürfen Jungen weit eher die Schule besuchen. Wo die Erzeugung im Familienhaus stattfindet, sind selbst die schulbesuchenden Kinder oft in ihrer gesamten Freizeit damit beschäftigt. Die tägliche Arbeitszeit ist in jedem Fall lange, wird doch nach der erzeugten Stückzahl bezahlt
Druck aus Europa fehlt
Um die Situation zu verbessern, macht Thambuaraj mit den Einrichtungen des Ordens der Salesianer Don Boscos in den betroffenen Dörfern auf die Gefahren der Kinderarbeit aufmerksam. “Oft ist viel Überzeugungsarbeit nötig. Dabei hilft jedoch auch, dass wir den Familien kostenlose Schulen, technische Ausbildung, Jobvermittlung oder zweite Bildungswege bieten. Denn erst Bildung ermöglicht bessere Berufsalternativen.” Wichtig sei zudem die Lobbyarbeit in Indien, wo Kinderarbeit zwar verboten ist, die Einhaltung des Gesetzes jedoch viel zu wenig geprüft wird.
Ohne den europäischen Käufern und Händlern gelingt die Abschaffung von Kinderarbeit und miserablen Produktionsbedingungen aber nicht, so der Experte. “Aus indischer Perspektive ist der Verzicht auf Silvesterraketen keine Lösung, da die Arbeit und das Einkommen vieler Familien von ihnen abhängt
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. Nötig ist jedoch mehr Druck der Käufer auf die Herstellerfirmen, mehr Sicherheit der Arbeiter zu garantieren und bessere Löhne zu bezahlen, durch die erst ein Verzicht auf Kinderarbeit gelingt. Finanziell ist das angesichts der enormen Gewinnspanne kein Problem – erhalten doch von den fünf Euro einer Rakete die Erzeuger nur wenige Cent.” (pressetext)
pdf-Bericht über die Kinderarbeit in der Feuerwerksindustrie: http://bit.ly/uGAj1c